Spain and the Confederation of the U.S.

Spain did not have enough soldiers to keep control of the Mississippi, American coast, and the Caribbean when they took hold of Louisiana. Settlers carried their goods through the Mississippi, and acquainted them in Louisiana, and the Caribbean. In 1767, this situation was legalized which accepted trading freedom. The war did not mean a barrier to trade either. Only at the end of the war, by 1782-1783, Great Britain opted for a commercial blockade when they were negotiating with the Rebels. Then, the U.S. became very interested in the Mississippi.

The Confederation ordered Britain to free navigation and trade through the river. Britain accepted, even though they didn’t own the river, or the land around it. This made a basis for an encounter between Spain and the United States. The Continental Congress pleaded to negotiate with Spain on borders and total free trade through the Mississippi like they did with the peace treaty with Great Britain (1783)

The governor, E. Mira insisted on a limited free trade according to the Order in Council. He took the chance and made a request to the Congress for persecution and repression of the Anglo-American smugglers. The first negotiation was to create and organize the territory, to make sure of a good relationship. That failed. The failure was a section of his “territorial annexation” The Confederation was mostly imported from Spain then being exported to the Spanish colonies. After this, Spain became a main supplier of the United States.

Spain Flag

Spain Flag

The Jay Treaty

In 1794, the Jay treaty (a.k.a. the Treaty of London) between the U.S. and Great Britain deflected war, and clarified several problems from the American Revolution. The treaty opened ten years of amicable trade in the middle of the French Revolution. The Jeffersonians did not agree with the treaty, but it was approved by the Congress. This became a complication in the formation of the First Party System. In November 1794, the treaty was signed although it wasn't declared until February 29, 1796.

The Secretary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton composed the majority of the terms. He had a large amount of reinforcement from President George Washington and Chief Negotiator John Jay. The treaty increased trade, and required that the British withdraw from posts they had utilized in the Northwest Territory. Wartime debts and the US-Canada boundary were sent to arbitration — this was one of the first extreme uses of arbitration in diplomatic history. The British also gave rights to trade with British possessions in India and the Caribbean. In interchange, American limits were set on the export of cotton.

The treaty dodged possible war but quickly became one of the main issues in domestic American politics, with Thomas Jefferson and James Madison leading the aversion. These men were afraid getting closer economic relationship with Britain would empower the Federalists. The treaty broke in 1803 and because efforts to put it back together failed, tension increased, leading to the the War of 1812.

The Treaty of Tripoli

The Treaty of Tripoli was the first treaty between United States and Tripoli. This treaty is also known as Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary.

The treaty was signed on November 4, 1796 at Tripoli, but was ratified from the U.S. on June 7, 1797. Privateering in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean (From the nations of the Barbary Coast) promoted the United States to crate a group of “peace treaties” known as the Barbary Treaties.

Joel Barlow was a U.S. consul-general to Barbary States like Algiers, Tripoli , and Tunis. He dealt with several treaties and backed up U.S. efforts in the Barbary Coast. David Humphreys, a Commissioner Plenipotentiary had the rights to create a treaty with Tripoli. The treaty broke in 1801 by the Pasha of Tripoli. This was because President Thomas Jefferson refused to increased payments that Pasha demanded for. After the First Barbary War, it was renegotiated in 1805. The first treaty was known for the controversy concerning Article 11, which was a statement regarding relationship among the government and the Christian religion.

The XYZ Affair

The XYZ Affair was given its name in 1797-98. There was a situation in the Franco-American government relations. In 1778, the United States made an alliance with France. But, once the occurrence of the French Revolutionary Wars had occurred, neither countries were able and willing to help.

The anti-Federalists for the French worked their way very sneakily to get to the upper hand of the United States. The people aimed antagonism at the French. A three-man peace commission of John Adams , John Marshall , and Elbridge Gerry was sent to France so they could join Charles Cotsworth Pinckney . It was immediately approached by the refusal of a French foreign minister named Charles Maurice de Talleyrand. There were misleading ideas for loans and bribes to commissioners from France to Mme de Villette. Two women named Jean Conrad Hottinguer and Lucien Hauteval, along with a man named Mr. Bellamy were designated X, Y, and Z in the mission’s dispatches in the United States.

The ideas that Americans should pay Talleyrand approximately $250,000 before the government of the French would deal with them created a problem when it was let out in the United States. The pro-British party tried to help make the Franco-American relations worse. The representatives of the United States made no gain and the mission broke up. Marshall came home, Pinckney took a sick daughter to southern France, and Gerry stayed in France for a little while. In the mean time, a naval war broke out between France and the United States, even though President John Adams and Talleyrand both wished to keep away from a huge war.

Piracy and the Tripolitan War

In 1801, there was a huge problem going on between the United States and the Barbary States. That problem was called piracy. The four Barbary States were Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Tripoli Tania. In 1801, Yusuf Karmanli, the pasha of Tripoli, started the Tripolitan War by ordering his soldiers to cut down the flagpole at the consulate of the United States. The action was followed by the United States’ refusal to meet the needs of Tripolitan demands so that they would have more things and more time for themselves so that they can guarantee protections for their own people.

Two years later into the Tripolitan War, Edward Preble, a commodore of the U.S. Navy was sent as a commander of the U.S Navy squadron to fight Tripoli. In 1804, the Intrepid was under the command of Lieutenant Stephen Decatur. They burned the United States Frigate Philadelphia while it was in Tripoli Harbor because it had been captured by Tripolitan gunboats one October when it ran into a reef.

In 1805, during the war, the United States gained the essential victory. The U.S. Naval Agent named William Eaton led a force of Marines and Arab mercenaries to capture Derna, the Tripolitan port city. They successfully captured it, and all marched approximately 500 miles to Derna from Egypt. There they were helped by a coordinated bombardment from U.S. Naval Vessels. Eaton's most important task was to replace the pasha of Tripoli with a good ruler.

Beginning of the Latin American Revolution

Many people in Spain’s territory were changed by the American and French revolutions. This grew into a hate for Spain’s rules in economic problems. Most problems were restrictions on trade, growing crops, making goods, and taxes. Many people, like those of British heritage, did not aid in government. These people were called Criolles (People born in America with authentic Spanish blood).

The church and military were controlled by Spaniards. They were arrogant towards the Criolles and Indians. Napoleon's move into Spain and Portugal was a changing point for Latin America, especially since Napoleon held King Ferdinand VII enslaved. The Criolles thought that Spanish authorities were spies of the French, and All Latin American territories started to yearn for independence.

On September 18, 1810 independence was proclaimed in Santiago (Chile) and in Acuncion (Paraguay), independence was proclaimed on May 14, 1811. Caracas (Venezuela), La Paz (Bolivia) and New Grenada (Colombia) declared independence on July 5, 1811. This was a giant step in the Latin American Revolution.

The War of 1812 On Land and On Sea

The War of 1812 increased tension among Great Britain and America, mostly because of trade problems. In 1807 and 1808 there were embargoes of British possessions. The English claimed rights to investigate American ships and take hold of anyone who was alleged of being a British and force them to be in the British military. The war was confirmed on June 19, 1812.

The War of 1812 became a highlight for the Champlain Valley. Lake Champlain was viewed to be the eastern division. The British plan was to dismember the United States by occupying Lake Champlain and the northern Hudson River, then attacking New York City, which would separate the nation and allow for peace in the eastern states. The invasion force numbered to approximately 15,000 soldiers, while there was a force of 3,500 Americans. On the lake, both countries had been organizing ships for naval procedures. In September, British General Prevost declared that his objective was to take hold of New York, all the way to Ticonderoga, and go destroy Vergennes.

American General Macomb had less than 2,000 men. Early in September British ships planned a signal to land soldiers.
The masts of the American vessels were spotted when the British ships sailed along Cumberland Head. Captain Downie sailed into Plattsburgh Bay. As MacDonough had planned, the English fleet was plotting against the wind on his run to engage the American fleet. When this battle began, General Prevost opened artillery bombardment on the American forts in Plattsburgh.

The battle was very bloody, but the Americans received victory. By the time it ended most ships were about to sink with their masts, and rigging destroyed. When the Americans heard of the victory, they had fireworks and bonfires everywhere in the country. New York gave 2000 acres to Macdonough. Towards late November, 1814 Captain MacDonough was ordered to resign command of the Lake Champlain fleet. On February 17, 1815 the U.S. confirmed the Treaty of Ghent, ending the war.

Results of the War

The War of 1812 had many good results, including two very surprising results. One result was that the United States had fought Britain twice and won both times. The second result was that our independence was never to be tested or questioned again. The war persuaded the United States to have a standing army, which was a major result.

A standing army is an army that is always ready to go whenever needed to; similar to the minutemen in the Revolutionary War. The U.S. had been caught off guard and humiliated in the War and didn't want it to happen again. So they thought it was necessary to make a standing army.

The war helped the U.S. economy to improve as it stimulated economic growth. Before the war was over, the trade of the U.S. was very interrupted and badly affected. It then turned out that Americans had to depend on themselves to make their own products that they relied on to be imported.

Eventually, the war resulted in the death of the Federalist Party. While the war was in progress, the Federalist Party was against the war and went so far that they held a convention in Hartford, Connecticut. The Federalists even threatened to leave from the Union. When the convention was happening, the peace treaty was being discussed so that the Federalist’s party was criticized and helped lead to the party dissolving.

The Monroe Doctrine

On December 2, 1823, President Monroe sent his seventh annual message to congress, which was later known as the Monroe Doctrine. It was said at the commencement of the last session of a great effort was being made in Spain and Portugal. They did this to make the people’s conditions in those countries better. Also, it showed up to be conducted of great moderation. It was unneeded to be stated that the results were different from before.

United States citizens celebrate sentiments of the liberty and happiness of their people on a side of the Atlantic. It does not say that in the European Wars of powers that they have to take any part in it. The only reason they would take part in it is if their rights are invaded or troubled with.

The political system of the powers that were allied is specifically different in this respect from America. The difference comes from the respected governments. To the defense of their own, there has been much loss of blood and treasure sacrificed for what they have achieved. Also, it has been matured because of the citizen’s wisdom and enlightenment. They have cherished very much because of unexampled felicity, this nation is devoted. They owe it to the relations that exist between the powers that declare we should accept any try on their part to make any portion of their system bigger. With the colonies or anything they rely on of any European power they have not and will not interfere with. The governments who declared independence and kept it, whose independence they have, with consideration and only principles. They could not get any interposition for oppressing them, or even taking control in any other way their destiny. In the war between Spain and their governments they declared their neutrality at the time of their recognition.
The Monroe Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine